• Capture of Mackinaw, 1763

    Porlier, Louis B., 1815-1899

    Despite the title, this memoir by fur trader Louis Porlier actually touches on several subjects and is composed largely of two speeches. The first is by the Menominee chief Sho-no-nee (1785-1864; usua…

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  • The Fox Indians During the French Regime

    Kellogg, Louise Phelps, d. 1942

    Although not strictly a primary source itself, this survey of the so-called Fox Wars of the 18th century quotes often from original French and Canadian manuscripts, and brings them together in a singl…

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  • Recollections of Antoine Grignon

    Grignon, Antoine

    Antoine Grignon was born in 1826 at Prairie du Chien and was the last of that family to work primarily as a trader among the Wisconsin tribes. He recalls here his boyhood in Prairie du Chien, and the…

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  • Un Payement de Menomonies, 1838

    Neveu, Gustave de, 1811-1881

    An account written in 1855 by de Neveu of his visit in October 1838 to the Wolf River to witness the payment to the Menominee Indians of their annual payment from the United States government. A typed…

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  • Letter by Reverend Father Etienne de Carheil to Monsieur Louis Hector de Callieres, governor [on conditions in the Upper Lakes in 1702]

    Carheil, Etienne de, 1633-1726

    Father Carheil explains -- at times in graphic detail -- how lust and greed corrupted nearly everyone connected with the fur trade at the western posts. Fur trade voyageurs, hunters, explorers and mer…

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